(This article is taken from, Golden Jubilee Magazine, 1998 of Tedim No. 1 Basic Education High School, pages 573-577)
Every nationality has its own national day. We, the Chin people, also have our own national day which falls on 20th February every year. The Chin National Day did not come into being accidentally out of narrow nationalism and patriotism, but it came into existence as a result of the slow and steady struggle against the hereditary feudal system, colonialism and imperialism. We were able to get our national day because of our national unity.
Under the divide and rule policy of the imperialists, the Chins were administered separately from that of Myanmar and other indigenous races. Mizoram was excluded from Chin Hills. The exploitation of Chins by the imperialists took place politically, economically and socially. Under the cover of religion, our national culture was distorted and destroyed.
So, the Chins were in one voice to fight the imperialists although their arms and ammunition were very much inferior to that of the British. The fight against the British imperialists brought about the seed o0f revolution which in turn laid down the birth of the Chin National Day. The British invaded and annexed the Chin Hills in 1892; however the British could administer Chin Hills only after the adoption of Chin Hills Regulation in 1896. Later this Regulation was replaced by Chin Special Division Act of 1948 which was adopted on 22 October 1948.
The Chin nationalist movements took place on 20 February 1928, 20 February 1938 and 20 February 1948 respectively. These nationalist movements are an indication of the strong patriotic spirit of the Chins towards their own state.
Chin Hills Union Organization was born on 20 February 1928 at Hlingzung (Mahtungnu village) in Mindat Township. The founding father of the organization were U Law Ha Hing Thang(Chairman), U Ware Law Ha (Secretary), U Ki Phe Lian (a) Thakhin Aung Min (Treasurer) U Ki Mang (Information ) and seven other members.
The formation of Chin Hills Union Organization is a milestone in the history of Chin Hills because this is the first time that the Chins were able to form a political organization in order to achieve their political ambition. It also laid down the political foundation for the introduction of Chin National Day. The first general meeting of Chin Hills Union Organization was held successfully at Ware village on 29 September 1932. The meeting decided to work together for the successful implementation in education, health, economy and social affairs. They also made a painful decision to drive out the imperialists as sooon as possible in cooperation with Myanmar.
In line with the division of the meeting, U Vomhtu Maung, U Ki Pe Liang, U Om Ning(a) Thakhin Aung Nyunt and meet the political leaders of Myanmar in Yangon. From that time onwards, Chin Hills Union Organization and Dobamar Asiayone ware able to increase the political momentum of national liberation movements in the country.
The new executive members of the organization were reelected by means of plebiscite at the general meeting in ware village the line up of new members were:
1. U Vomhtu Maung (Chairman, Mindat )
2. U Ware Law Ha (Vice-Chairman, Mindat )
3. U Ki Phe Ling (Secretary, Mindat )
4. U Shwe Ling (Joint Secretary, Mindat )
5. U Ki Mang (Finance, Mindat )
There were also other 10 EC members and 18 circle chairmen.
Thus the political momentum of Chin national unity was developed rapidly. It also tendered a helping had to the Student's Strike of 1936 and the political crisis of Myanmar era 1300. The organization submitted nine petitions to the British Government for the improvement of Chin Hills in various fields as follows:
1. to grant equal rights in administration to Chins similar to other forign national;
2. to administer Chin Hills according to the rules and regulations adopted by the Chins in cooperation with the Government;
3. to make reformations for the improvement in education system in Chin Hills and to allow the teaching of Myanmar in addition to English;
4. to permit freedom of religions;
5. to construct roads as soon as possible for the improvement of transport and communications in Chin Hills;
6. to grant free access to travel to Myanmar;
7. to allow Chins to have freedom of relationship with any nationality;
8. to grant independence to Chins simultaneously with Myanmar.
The British Government gave its consent to discuss the 9 proposals on 20 February 1938 under its letter of 17 December 1937. About 300 members of Chin Hills Union Organization attended the general meeting under the leadership of U Vomhtu Maung, U Ware Law Ha and U Ki Phe Ling. About 300 government servants attended the meeign under the leadership of the Commissioner of Falam and Sub divisional officer of Kanpetlet.
After heated debate between the two sides, the British Government announced that the 9 proposals could not be granted to the Chins. The political leaders of Chins were requested to take high ranking posts of public service in place of political duties. The members of Chin Hills Union Organization refused to take part in the public service and the discussions were in deadlock. Finally, the Government then declared Chin Hills Union Organization as an illegal organization. The Chins were very angry with the one sided act of the Government and as a result, demonstrations against the Government took place in various parts of Kanpetlet.
The high raking administrators of Magwe, Falam and Kanpetlet then ran away to the town of Saw in the same night for the sake of their safety.
After the declaration of Chin Hills Union Organization as an illegal organization, the Government arrested many Chin political leaders. The 36 members of circle chairmen declared their resignations from the public service in defiance of the detention of Chin political leaders. Demonstrations against the Government also took place in many parts of the area. They said that they would no longer pay tax and would not also serve as their coolies. They also stopped their ties with the ruling government.
The popular uprising in Kanpetlet is an indication of the brevity of Chins in their struggle against the colonists. Their act of defiance against the colonists was a right direction for the birth of Chin National Day.
According to the meeting on 13 December 1946 at Aung San's residence, many commissions were formed to strengthen the friendly ties between Myanmar and various leaders of ethnic community. A Conference on Chin Myanmar friendship was held at Htilin from 4 to 6 March 1947 and friendship treaty was signed on the last day. Dedok U Ba Cho represented Aung San and U Vomhtu Maung represented the Chins. The leaders of Shan, Kachin and Chin also held a conference at Nyaungshwe in March 1947 and they decided to fight for complete independence together with Myanmar.
Aung San Atlee Agreement was signed on 27 January 1947. In line with the agreement, the Constituent Assembly was to be elected to determine future administrative affairs of Myanmar. As such, Panglong Conference was held on 7 February 1947 and Panglong Agreement was signed on 12 Februay 1947.
In accordance with the instructions of the Governor the Frontier Areas administrative officers, U Hlur Hmung of Falam, U Kio Mang of Hakha and U Thawng Za Khup of Tedim were selected by the Deputy Commissioner of Falam to represent Chins at Panglong conference.
Furthermore, Frontier Areas Committee of Enquiry was formed in March 1947 under the chairmanship of the Committee; the Chins opted to elect their own respective Constituent Assembly.
At the request of the Chins, Chin Hills Enquiry Commission was formed with three members on 5 February 1948. The Commission conducted enquiry from 12-23 February 1948 and they recommended the introduction of the rule of democratic system in lieu of hereditary feudal system of administration in Chin Hills and to grant compensation to the chiefs and headmen.
A general meeting was held in Falam from 19-22 February to make a choice on the administrative system in Chin Hills and the election of Chin representatives. The meeting was attended by over 5000 representatives of Chins. In the meeting, U Vomhtu Maung of Mindat acted as Chairman, Captain Mang Tung Nung as Secretary and U Lian THum of Hakha as master of ceremony.
On 20 Fe 1948, the representative of Tedim U Thawng Za KHup submitted a proposal in the general meeting. According to his proposal, the Chins had suffered untold misery under the hereditary feudal chiefs and headmen. They imposed heavy taxes on the common people. They also ordered the common Chin people to contribute voluntary labor without paying their labor charges. Due to their exploitation of the Chins by the feudal chiefs and headmen, no improvement and development of Chin Hills could be made for may decades. So, the majority of Chins were in favor of the abolition of hereditary feudal system of administration and they would like to bring about modern democratic system of administration in the Chin Hill.
The proposlal of U thawn Za Khup was strongly supported by U Sum Mang of Falam and U Thang Maung of Kanpetlet repectively. The popular vote was taken and 5000 representatively voted in favor of the proposal were as 17 representatives voted against the proposal. The Chin representative's then confirmed the resolution as the vote received and overwhelming majority. Colonialism, the rule of hereditary feudal system by chiefs and headmen were then eliminated for the first time in Chin Hills at this mass meeting and introduced the democratic system which advocates the rule of the people by the people for the people. It is landmark in the history of Chin Hills because it was the first time that all the Chins were able to hold the general meeting and achieves national unity among themselves. So, 20 Feb is a historic and meaningful day for the Chins because all the Chins were able to achieve national solidarity and unity on this very day.
On 9 October 1950 the Chin Affairs Council decided officially to honor 20 Feb as Chin National Day. The first Chin National Day was held in Mindat on grand scale on 20 Feb 1951. Messages of congratulations were received from the President and many Ministers of the States of the Union of Myanmar. The Prime Minister attended the celebration of Chin National Day personally and he also read the message of the President of the Union of Myanmar.
In 1956 the Minister for Chin Affairs U Zahre Lian changed Chin National Day from 20 Feb to 4 December, Hoever, the change was not successful because the majority of th Chins could not accept his order as 4 December has no political significance for Chin nationals.
In Feb 1966, attempts were being made to change the Chin national day to Chin Special Division Day. The matter was referred to the Office of the Revolutionary Council on 11 July 1966. The Office of the Revolutionary Council then informed the Chin Affairs Council to carry out the celebration of Chin National Day as before in its letter of 25 November 1966. In line with the instructions, the Chin Affairs Council issued a notification under letter No. YAKA 29/04(2) of 9 January 1967 announcing that Chins would continue to observe its Chin National Day as usual but not as Chin Special Division Day.
Now, similar attempts are being made by some people to change Chin National Day into "Chin State Day" Chin State has come into existence under section 30(B) of the Constitution of the Union of Myanmar which was adopted only on 3 January 1974. It is therefore, the national duty of all Chins to safeguard its National Day, to preserve and maintain its culture, language and literature if we would like to keep our Chin identity among the family of nations.
Lists of references
1. Salai Lian Hmung, Chin National Day, Chin National Journal(Myanmar Edition) published by Chin National Journal Committee, Universities of Yangon on 20 Feb 1988.
2. Mindat Eugene, Chin National Day Started from the Struggle against Imperialism, a pamphlet in Myanmar Edition, published by Chin National Day Golden Jubilee Celebration Committee, Yangon, 20th Feb 1988.
3. Robert Siang Lian, Chins Choose to Be Free, Chin Magazine, Universities of Yangon, 1984-1985.
4. Robert Siang Lian, The Significance of Chin National Day, Chin Magazine (1973-1974), published by Chin literature and culture Committee, Universities of Yangon, Yangon, 1973-74.
A BRIEF BACKGROUND HISTORY OF CHIN NATIONAL DAY
Now a day, we can say easily that Chin Affair Council held a meeting on 9th September 1950 at Rangoon and adopted Chin National Day, but the Chin National Day was borne out of the period long struggle of independence and democracy by Chin people which shall not to be forgotten.
Followings are the basic historical milestone dates regarding Chin Nationl Day.
(1) 20th February 1918 (1st )
(2) 20th February 1928 (2nd )
(3) 20th February 1938 (3rd )
(4) 20th February 1939 (4th ) and
(5) 20th February 1948 (5th ) or last.
1st Milestone of Feb: 20, 1918
2nd Milestone of Feb: 20, 1928
3rd Milestone of Feb: 20, 1938
4th Milestone of Feb: 20, 1939
5th Milestone of Feb 20, 1948
So, Chin Affair Council meeting chose 20th February for Chin National Day with consensus. Chin National Day means national victory celebration day. It also represents terminating colonial rule. And re-attainment of independence and lying foundation of democracy rule for Chin people at large.
At present, our responsibility is to build a federal union with all our brothers of different nationalities. If we implement it, the dictatorship will be terminated automatically. So, what is essential is UNITY of all Chins at this crucial time, which is advice and reminded often and again by our forefathers.
Salai Kee Le Awm 26/12/ 09
The term "National"
The term “national” might have been interpreted in a variety of ways with different implications by historians, politicians, and scholars. We may notice that the word national has been marked in quotation intentionally in the title of this article to emphasize its importance in itself. In this short article, I would like to revisit and engage with a very brief historical and philosophical study on the ambiguous terms “nation, national, and nationalism” so as to bring a better understanding about the meaning of these phenomena. By doing so, the ultimate goal is to enlighten ourselves so that we may be able to realize the purpose and the essence of celebrating the Chin National Day, which indeed is re-affirming the granted right of self-determination which we have already gained fifty eight years ago.
Originally, the word ‘nation’ (from the Latin natio, meaning birth of place or origin)1 was used to referring to a certain group of foreigners from the same place whose status was lower than that of Roman citizens. These people are students from the same geographical locations attending Europe’s medieval universities. In this sense, during that time, the word nation merely was just a name for educated elites or students from a particular geographical group of people. Gradually, the word “nation” begun to be applied to a whole population of people from a particular geographical locale rather than to a student elite. One’s “national” identity, therefore, came from being a member of a certain people, which was defined as homogenously distinct in language, culture, race, and history from other peoples. Thus, “nation” came to have its contemporary meaning: “a uniquely sovereign people readily distinguishable from other uniquely defined sovereign people who are bound together by a sense of solidarity, common culture, language, religion, and geographical location.”2 Joseph Stalin in his book titled The Nation defined a nation as a historical constituted community of people. Hans Kohn in his book the Ideal of Nationalism termed the nation as the will of the people—the will of the people that is awakened by its repressed desire for freedom, self-determination and a state of its own.
Before the nation-state arises or during ancient time: the Roman republic, imperial rule, feudal state period—there was no nationalism or “national” identity issues. The reason is simple and obvious. In the mind of people of those times, there was no national political consciousness to feel a sense of belonging to a particular community of people, nor was the nation-state created. In other words, there was no freedom for people to be informed about who they are and to make a choice of their own political destiny, instead in the imperial period people and soldiers were forced to fight solely for the Roman Empire merely as the fighters and the knights. Likewise in the feudal state period, people and soldiers were bound by duties toward their feudal superiors and the church—a corrupted church. With national consciousness of some educated class, a few old nations emerged in the late 18th century and then modern nations in late 19th century. The process of forming the new nations was simple and easy to grasp. People are now politically conscious enough that they need a nation where they belong together as a group of people motivated by their desire for freedom and self-determination. National self-determination, therefore, is a determination of the will; and nationalism is a method of teaching the right determination of the will.3
As we have seen, although there is no precise definition for a nation, there are certain criteria that have to be taken into account in order to legitimize the nationalism or the existence of a nation. In ideology, it is generally agreed that a nation is a historically constituted, stable community of people, formed on the basis of common language and culture, religion, and shared myth. However, in reality, some of these characteristics simply failed to provide a satisfactory account into a nation state. For instance, the Norwegian and the Danes speak one language, but they do not constitute a single nation. Neither do Americans and English constitute a nation. Likewise, the transformation of religion into nationalist ideology is all the more inconvenient. Pakistan, whose doctrine is to transform Islam into a political ideology and used in order to mobilize Muslims against Hindus, neither constitutes a nation with the rest of the Arab nations. So are Judaism and Catholicism. Therefore, the most satisfactory criteria to legitimize nationalism or the existence of a nation is, as quoted above, the desire for self-determination, on the basis of common culture, a shared history and a shared myth of a group of people. Undeniably, politically conscious educated elites had played a very important role in the process of the formation of such modern nations in Europe.
Historically and politically freed people—satisfying the above set criteria for a nationhood, Chin people were so fortunate to have such politically conscious national leader as Pu Wam Tu Maung under whose leadership the opportunity to decide our own fate was rightfully utilized by unanimously agreeing to abandon feudal administrative system—a system in which if not the whole population, but most of the Chin people were bound by duties and obligations toward feudal lords. By abolishing such autocratic ruling system and by establishing democratic governance which was done in accordance with the will of the Chin people had made it possible for us to bear the identity of Chin “National”. The day on which we exercised such free will in history is later preciously known and politically reaffirmed as Chin National Day. We celebrate it every year re-affirming our granted self-determination.
Today, with view of celebrating their national day, people all over the world opted to observe the day on which the most significant historic event and success had ever happened to their nation and their people. The importance attached to and the degree to which it is made such observances as a national day or a national holiday enormously varies from state to state and from country to country. However, they all celebrate the day on which they obtain their self-determination as a free people. The French celebrate their national day on 14th July which is known as Bastille Day, marking the uprising of the ‘modern French nation’ in 1789. The Americans observe their Independence Day on the 4th July as their national day remembering the day when they obtained the ‘political freedom’ from the British colonial rule in 1776. So do the Chins, they celebrate their national day on the 20th February every year— the historic day – to commemorate the February 20, 1948, when more than fifty thousand Chin leaders across Chin State gathered at Falam Town, Chin State, unanimously agreeing upon the ‘transferring of the Chin feudal administrative system into a democratic system of governing’. For us (the Chins) this historic day is more than Independence Day, and this is the day on which we proclaimed our self-determination what is later known and chosen to be observed as the Chin “National” Day. Today the Chins around the globe are joyfully celebrating the 58th anniversary of Chin National Day to re-affirm the self granted self-determination.
Not only Burman military dictatorship tried to take the already achieved self-determination away from us by means of not allowing us to celebrate Chin National Day inside Burma, but they also have been trying to eliminate our “National” identity by the systematic imposition of the Chin State Day on the Chin National Day. Moreover, the regime has been downplaying the real implication of the Panglong agreement by never implementing the real purpose of it— indeed the agreement was signed with other historically constituent nations like Chin Hills—members of Union of Burma with the sole purpose to achieving the independence from British colonial rule in 1948. As a result, the essence of our National Day and Burma’s independence as a whole have been obscured by the rule of military dictatorship and it only leads Chin people and the country into political, economy and social disruptions. Therefore, it is crucial time for every Chin “national” to realize the need to be more conscious about our national unity and to be more involved in striving towards defending our national right of self-determination.
1. Opello Rosow, The Nation Sate and Global Order: “A Historical Introduction to Contemporary Politics” (London 2004), 191.
2. Norman Davies, Europe: A History (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 382.
3 .Hutchinson & Smith, Oxford Readers: Nationalism (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), 54.
*Elaisa Vahnie is a senior year student of Informatics and Business at Indiana University, Bloomington, U.S.A. He is a former Secretary of Chin Student Union based in India. He currently serves as the North America representative for the Mara People’s Party which won a parliamentary seat in 1990 Burma’s general election, and he also works as the General Secretary of Burmese Students Association, Indiana University in Bloomington.
The Chinland became a part of Burma only after the British gave independent to Burma in 1948. Before that the Chin people were historically independent indigenous people. The Chin Hills had become home for the Chin people since pre-historic period. Until the British colonization came to the Chin Hills, there were no historical evidences that show that the Chin people were invaded and ruled by other nations. The Chins had their own chiefs, village founders or tribe leaders. Even though there were no Chin kings, it is obvious that the Chin people had their own rulers. The Chin fore-fathers enjoy their autonomy, rights and privileges for hundreds of years in Chin Hills. The Chin people lost all those things and became one of the states and divisions of Burma.
There were three different obvious facts that made the Chinland and people become part of Burma. They were
Pinlong Agreement and
The Chins were living as independent nation till the British invaded their land in the late 19th century and annexed all their territory into British Empire in 1890. The British Colonization had brought both advantages and disadvantages for the Chin people. The coming of Christianity and civilization was obvious benefit for the Chin people from the British colonization. In that civilization, having a military power which was known as Chin Rifle battalion was also an advantages. However, at the same time the worse nuisance from that era was losing own autonomy to the British and to the Burmese in its consequences. Before, the Christianity was brought by the pioneer missionaries such as some RC bishops and Carson and Laura, the Chin people were known as head hunters. They British invaded Burma after declaring three times of war. The first Anglo-Burma broke out in 1824, the second in 1845 and third in 1885 and occupied all Burma in 1886. About for years after the invasion of Burma, the British came to the soil of the Chin Hills.
Pu Lian Uk a politician and former member of parliament of Burma stated,
"The Chin people claim that the Chin in their definite territory especially the Chin State today had never been a part of Burma or had it never been under any of the Burmese kings before British annexation. It was an independent territory with its definite territory under their chieftains since time immemorial and the British invaded and annexed the Chin country as a separate independent territory in 1890 outside the Burmese kingdom. The Chin resistance war against the British invasion of their country was so fierce in 1888 that even one British soldier was awarded Victoria Cross (VC) equivalent to Aung San Thuriya in Burma or US Congressional Medal, being the highest military gallantry medal in the British empire in which the sun never set. It was awarded to him at the Chin resistant battle against the invading British forces at Siallum in Tedim township in present Chin State which is now historically marked as Siallum Fort. The award showed how fiercely the Chin resistant battle was fought by both sides."
The Chin people lost their autonomy in the hand of the British colony. Yet, there were even more negative impacts. As the Second World War ended, the British had been abandoning almost all of their colonized countries according to their agreement in United Nations charter. The decision whether to give independent to the Chin nation separately was utterly in the hand of the British. But according to Aung San - Atlee treaty, the ethnic people were included within the today Burma. Therefore, the British colonization has done a historical mistake for the Chin people in this point.
The Pinlong Agreement was held at Pinlong town of Shan State on February 12, 1947 one year before independent was affirmed. The Kachin, Chin and Shan ethnic leaders were invited. The Chin leaders who attended the conference were Pu Hlur Hmung of Falam, Pu Thawng Za Khu(Teddim) and Pu Kio Mang(Hakha). In this meeting, apparently the Karen, Karenni, Mon and Arakanese leaders did not attend or sign their signatures. This Pinlong Agreement indeed was focus on gaining independent as soon as possible rather than uniting with the Burma.
In this agreement there were no point indicating that the Chinland would became apart of Burma. However, it was one of the main reasons that made the Chinland became a part of Burma. Some other ethnic groups did not attend or sign in the agreement yet they still became a part of Burma. This is the fact that the Pinlong Agreement was neither the only reason how the Chin people lost their autonomy or the Chin leader's mistake. Even though the Karen did not sign the agreement, they still are under the Burmese military dictatorship so as the Chin.
There were nine points in the Pinlong Agreement. The seventh point of the agreement was described like this…"Citizens of the Frontier Areas shall enjoy rights and privileges which are regarded as fundamental in democratic countries."The frontier Areas indicated the Hills areas such as Chin and Kachin Hills. They hope of the Chin people and other ethnic minorities started changing into a night mare since General Aung San was assassinated on July 19, 1947 together with other national leaders. Those eras were still time of the heroes. Aung San was a hero for the Burma.
The Chin leaders seem to be working as a team. However, there is no evidence that the Chin leaders had gained the wills of the Chin people in order to make decision to become one of the frontier areas of the Burma. The heroes and leaders at that time were vital persons. Battles were won because of a hero and battles were lost because of the death of a hero. It was inevitable in that period. Aung San himself had said about the "Lowkah Neihban," which means the heaven on the earth or the Nirvana on the Earth. The Lowkah Neihban also has never come true. Therefore, the blame is granted to the fate. The pinlong agreement, however, is a historic landmark for the Burma people to say that the Chin people had willingly became their subjects. Till today, 12 of February have been celebrated as Union day in Burma. It is believed that the Union of Burma was born. The original concept of the Union or the Pinlong Agreement was inevitably preferable for the Chin people in that era.
The agreement was promises. There were no witnesses of other countries. It was just like selling a cow at a Chin village. After the independent, the federal democratic system was similarly adopted at first. The competition of two isms; left and right, had effected upon the Burma too. And then, the Pinlong Agreement is being mistakenly quoted in order to make the Chin under the Burma in stead of establishing a federated union of democratic country which was the true dream of the agreement. The following Burmese leader consequently ignored it and failed to fulfill the promises.
The Burmese military Junta
After the independent, the Chin Hills was known as Chin Special division and the Minister of the State were appointed by the Burmese government. The Chin minister of the State were as follow,
1947 - 1954: Vam Thu Maung Of Mindat
1954 - 1956: U Shein Htang Of Mindat
1956 - 1962: U Za Hre Lian
1961 In order to amend the Constitution of Burma (1947) into more federate features as agreed in Panglong Conference, the Chins and all non-Burman nationalities gathered in Taunggyi, the Capital of Shan State from June 8 – 16, 1961. Since on 2 March 1962 autonomy completely was abolished by the Burmese military junta General Ne Win and it was the conclusion of the hope of the Chin people. It had a single Chairman of the Supreme State Council, U San Kho Lian, who remained in office until March 1974.As the dictator Ne Win staged a coup in the name of Revolutionary Council, any Chin politicians and scholars presumed to participate in Taunggyi Conference were arrested.The military junta then ruthlessly rules the whole Burma using different tactics of oppression in order to control the power. If the military junta did not take control of the power, the Taungyi conference would have brought the fruits for the Pinlong Agreement.
The military's siege of the power was worse reason that utterly forced the Chinland and people to remain the same under the neo-colonization of Burma.
Therefore, in conclusion, it is clear that the tree different events and historical facts relate one another and are the cause of the Chinland to become a part of Burma. The Chin people who enjoyed the privileges of independent in the history had become a colony of other nation since late 19 century till 21 century. As a colonized nation the Chin people had been suffering different kind of persecutions, human rights abuses, discriminations, oppression. The Chin people also have been demanding and fighting in order to restore the historic nature of the Chinland in all the possible ways. The British colonization in which the Chins first lost their heritage autonomy was the first and important reasons that made the Chinland to be part of the Burma. The Pinlong Agreement which was often criticized as the point of foolishness will anyhow remain as one of the reasons, too. All those two things paved a smooth way for the Burmese military vehicles to practice neo-fascism toward the Chin people.